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Department of Archaeology, University of Sydney.
NSW 2006, Australia.
E-mail: trudy.doelman@arts.usyd.edu.au
School of Archaeology and Anthropology,
Australian National University
Australian National University,
Canberra ACT 0200, Australia
E-mail: kononenkonina@hotmail.com
Far East Geological institute, Far East Branch,
159 Prospekt 100-letiya, Vladivostok, 69000, Russia
E-mail: vladpov@hotmail.com
Archaeology and Natural History,
Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies
Australian National University,
Canberra ACT 0200, Australia
E-mail Glenn.Summerhayes@anu.edu.au
Division of Anthropology, Australian
6-8 College St, NSW 2010, Australia
E-mail: robint@austmus.gov.au
Istituto di Fisica, Universita di Milano,
Via Celoria, 16 20133 Milano, Italy.
Istituto di Fisica, Universita di Milano,
Via Celoria, 16 20133 Milano, Italy.
Istituto di Fisica, Universita di Milano,
Via Celoria, 16 20133 Milano, Italy.
Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di
Via Taramelli, 12 27100 Pavia, Italy
Geochemical techniques have been widely used in many parts of the world
to link volcanic glass artifacts with their geological outcrops as the first stage
in the study of prehistoric trading patterns. For example, studies by Kuzmin
and his associates have used instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)
and x-ray florescence (EDXRF) to trace the ancient distribution of glass artifacts
in Far Eastern Russia (Shackley et al. 1996; Kuzmin et al. 1999;
Kuzmin and Popov 2000; Kuzmin et al. 2002). Both these analytical methods
measure the varying concentrations of elements in the volcanic glass.
Bivariate plots of results combined with cluster and discriminate classification
statistically differentiate geological outcrops (Kuzmin et al. 2002, 506—508).
The geochemial signatures of 24 naturally occurring localities (outcrops)
throughout the region were then compared to INAA and EDXRF studies of
110 artifacts from 36 widely distributed archaeological sites dated to the Late
Paleolithic (c. 20 000—11 000 BP), Neolithic (c. 10 700—3 000 BP), Early Iron
Age and Medieval periods (c. 3 000—300 BP). Their results show that two local
(Gladkaya River Basin and the Basaltic plateau, which is comprised of the
Shkotovo and Shufan plateaus) and one distant (Paekutsan Volcano) sources
of volcanic glass with good flaking properties were targeted and exploited (Figure
1). Furthermore, they argued that the use of volcanic glass from the remote
Paekutsan Volcano at archaeological sites within the Primorye Region is
evidence for long-distance exchange beginning as early as 10 000 BP.
Our new research applies the Proton Induced X-ray Emission and Proton Induced
Gamma-ray Emission (PIXE-PIGME) technique (cf Summerhayes et al.
1998) to a suite of geological and archaeological samples in order to confirm and
broaden the pioneering INAA and EDXRF analyses. The use of additional methods
to strengthen and complement previous geochemical studies of volcanic glass
is standard practice in archaeological science (e.g. Tykot 1998, 70). We have selected
PIXE-PIGME for our archaeological research because it is a nondestructive
technique that can be applied to rare and unusual artifacts. A preliminary
attempt at Fission Track Dating of the basaltic glasses from Primorye was also
made since this has been found useful in other contexts to assist with understanding
when and how raw material sources could have been used in the past (e.g. Bonetti
et al. 1998).
Our results substantiate the existence of long-distance movement of volcanic
glass beginning in the Late Paleolithic and continuing into the Bronze Age. In
addition, we found that volcanic glass was transported from a distant source into
areas where it was already available. Temporal variation in the frequency of volcanic
glass obtained from local and remote sources as well as changes in the diversity
of sources provide tentative indications that different procurement and/or
mobility strategies operated during the Late Paleolithic, Late Neolithic and Bronze
Age of the Primorye region.
For a provenance study to be successful, according to Tykot (2003, 63), all
relevant sources must be known, the sources must be characterised by their physical
properties, variability within and between sources must be known, and differences
should be measurable and statistically divergent. All such studies begin with
basic geological research to locate the potential sources. The location of the major
source areas of volcanic glass in southwestern Primorye is shown in Figure 1.
In these regions volcanic glass occurs naturally in the form of basaltic glass, rhyolitic
glass or perlites, each of which are associated with different geological formations
(Kuzmin et al. 2002, 506). Basaltic glass can be found in the two Basaltic
plateaux of Central Primorye (Shkotova and Shufan Plateaux). Perlites and
rhyolitic glass, associated with Palaeogene basalt-rhyolites, are found in the Krabbe
Peninsula and Gladkaya River Basin in Southern Primorye. Perlites are also found
as part of the Sikhote-Alin volcanic belt in Eastern Primorye.
Within the Primorye Region, primary sources of volcanic glass in the form of
geological outcrops are mainly associated with volcanic-tectonic depressions and
calderas. But they can also be found within smaller structures such as extrusive
domes, dykes, lava or pyroclastic flows (Kuzmin and Popov 2000, 161). When
these geological features are eroded, blocks of volcanic glass are released. These
can then be water-rolled and transported down waterways that drain the volcanic
regions. The resulting redeposited cobbles are considered secondary sources of
volcanic glass.
The location of the outcrops combined with the distance these cobbles travel
downstream determines the size of the source locality, or the area in which humans
could have obtained volcanic glass (Figure 1). Basaltic glass from the Shkotovo
Plateau can be found in the Ilistaya, Partizanskaya and Arsenievka Rivers,
while tributaries of the Razdolnaya River that drain the Shufan Plateau also yield
obsidian (Figure 1). Tertiary dykes and small extrusive domes within the Glad114
kaya River Basin have been eroded so that cobbles and blocks from this source
can be found in the Ryazanovka and Vinogradnaya Rivers (Figure 1).
Outside the region, rhyolitic glass (obsidian) is also found at the remote Paektusan
Volcano on the border of China and North Korea and more than 300 kilometers
to the southwest of Primorye (Figure 1).
The first step in an archaeological study of how people used volcanic glass in
the past is to assess the properties of potential sources that influenced how people
might have selected and worked the available material (Torrence 1986; Torrence
et al. 1992; Bamforth 1990, 1992). The sampling locations from the three
source localities described in this paper were assessed according to a series of
variables that might have been relevant to their prehistoric use: (1) depositional
context (water-rolled cobble, outcrop); (2) size of the available material; (3) quality
of the material (flaking properties); (4) geological origin (basaltic glass, perlite,
obsidian), (5) ease of extraction. The summary provided in Table 1 is based
____ _ ___ ____ __ ___ __ ___ _____ _ ______
_____ ____ ___ __
___!___ ____"______
______ ______
#_$%&'__()__ ___
___!___ __!_
______ _______
#'%+__()__ ___
___!___ ____________
______ _______
#'%+__()__ ___
___!___ __,_
______ _______
#'%+__()__ ___
____ ___
____ ____ ________
____ -____ __ __________ ___
-____ ___
____ ___
-____ ___ ______
Table 1 Description of the source areas assessed during this study
on previous fieldwork by geologists supplemented by a recent joint geological and
archaeological field trip to the Shkotovo Plateau in 2001.
Beginning with the Basaltic plateau primary and secondary sources, we can see
that there is considerable variability across the region, although the flaking quality
of this glass source is generally quite good. For example, a preliminary analysis of
cobbles along the Ilistaya River shows that cobble diameter declines with distance
from the outcrop. This is important because the size of the cobble may influence
the procurement strategy employed as it often dictates how the raw material can
be reduced and what artifacts can be manufactured (Bamforth 1992, 132). For example,
boulders up to 25 cm in diameter were observed in the stream bed at Point B.
As Point B is still located in the volcanic belt, the cobbles have not experienced a
great deal of water action (Figure 1). In contrast, at Point Z, approximately 50 km
from the outcrop, the size of the available cobbles has been reduced to 5—8 cm in
diameter. Furthermore, as large cobbles of reasonably good quality material are easily
extracted from the stream bed near the outcrops, there may be no need to exploit
the nearby outcrops. For example, volcanic glass from the Krivoi outcrop, located
at the headwaters of the Ilistaya River, varies in flaking quality due to the inclusion
of phenocrysts and is difficult to extract from within the basaltic flows, but there is
an abundant source of relatively large volcanic glass cobbles in the adjacent stream.
The perlite outcropping on the Krabbe Peninsula has very poor fracturing properties
and is moderately difficult to extract making its attractiveness as a source
low. Similarly, the perlite from the Sikhote-Alin volcanic belt (Eastern Primorye)
is also poor quality. In contrast, the volcanic glass available in the Olenyi stream
and Vinogradnaya River and its tributaries (part of the Gladkaya River Basin) occurs
as small dykes of medium to good quality material making it a suitable source of
archaeological volcanic glass. As with the Basaltic plateau region, however, the
stream cobbles may have been as good if not better as a source because they are
easier to collect and have a wider spatial distribution.
The summary data in Table 1 shows that there is considerable variability in
the physical characteristics of the source localities in the Primorye Region. It is
likely that the geological constraints of the available material impacted on the
ways that volcanic glass was procured and worked in the region. At present the
comparison of the potential source localities is based on very general observations.
A more comprehensive investigation of the source localities needs to be
undertaken to quantify their similarities and differences.
Geochemical analysis of geological sources of volcanic glass by Kuzmin and
Popov (2000) identified ten distinct chemical sub-groups from three geological
formations local to the Primorye region: Gladkaya River 1, 2 and 3; Basaltic plateau;
Krabbe Peninsula; Sikhote-Alin volcanic belt —Sadovy, Chernaya Rechka,
Samarage. The only distant sources were Paektusan Volcano 1 and 2. They concluded
that as the geochemical analyses did not match any artifacts with glasses
from the Sikhote-Alin volcanic belt, the Krabbe Peninsula, Paektusan-2 and the
Gladkaya River 2 and 3, these geological formations were not used as sources in
the past (Kuzmin and Popov 2000; Kuzmin et al. 2002, 509—510).
PIXE-PIGME is a non-destructive technique of a wide range that measures a
range of elements over a short period of time using both Proton Induced X-ray
Emission and Proton Induced Gamma-ray Emission analyses (Summerhayes et al.
1998, 134). During PIXE analysis, samples are irradiated by 3 MeV protons produced
by an accelerator. As a result they emit x-rays that are characteristic of
individual elements. These x-rays can be measured by a Si(Li) or High Purity
Germanium detector which identifies the spectrum of the elements in the sample.
PIGME analysis measures the energy produced when protons are charged. Charged
protons create a nuclear reaction which results in the emission of high-energy
x-rays (gamma rays) that can be measured by a lithium drifted germanium detector.
As each element has a different energy, this can be used to quantify the elemental
composition of volcanic glass. A «pinhole» filter is used to limit the intensity
of the major elements making it easier to detect trace elements and discriminate
the sources to a finer degree. Statistical analysis of the results using a series of
multivariate techniques is used to identify the geochemical subgroups.
A total of 39 samples (Figure 1) from primary sources (outcrops, Figure 2)
and secondary sources (river cobbles, Figure 3) were collected and characterized.
Results from the PIXE-PIGME analyses support the initial groupings made by
Kuzmin and Popov (2000) using Energy Dispersion X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF)
and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Three source localities were
defined in the Primorye Region: (1) basaltic glass from the Shufan Plateau (2)
rhyolitic glass from the Krabbe Peninsula, (3) rhyolitic glass from the Gladkaya
River Basin. In addition, a group of artifacts was identified as derived from the
Paektusan Volcano on the basis of a comparison with the INNA data. The results
are summarized in Table 2.
_ _
__ ____ ___
_ ______ !_ "#_ $"_ %_ "&_ -__ _0$'_ &_1_ 2'$_ +''_ _3_ 4&4_ &_ &+_ 022!_ -__ &56+_ &5&2_ &52&_ &524_ _3_ $5$&_ $5$2_ $5$&_ &$5''_ -__ 654_ 15+0_ '561_ '5'6_ _3_ $5$4_ $5$'_ $5$&_ _542_(_ -__ 2'562_ &_51'_ 215+_ &056'_ _3_ 251_ _56_ 25_4_ 4566__ -__ 452&_ $56_ 45''_ 2540_ _3_ $5$0_ $5$'_ $5$+_ $5$0)'_ -__ $510_ 651'_ $521_ $50_
_ _3_ _56_ $5$4_ $5$$_ $54+_(_ -__ _&61_ 0'04_ 44&_ _'26_ _3_ &&6_ _&_4_ 22_ '+6*!_ -__ 4&$_ _&6+_ &+$_ &11_ _3_ &24_ +6_ &$_ ++&__ -__ _56+_ +5&_ $5$6_ _521_ _3_ _560_ $5$4_ $5$&_ $5$2+!_ -__ _4$_ _4$_ 22_ 4&6_
_ _3_ $5$6_ $5$+_ $5$_ $5$6__ -__ &41_ _2_ _$_ _40_ _3_ '1_ '_ _2_ 6'__ -__ 2_ 2_2_ __ '1_ _3_ '+_ 4$_ 2_ 40,_ -__ '_ _4_ &_ &6_ _3_ _&_ '_ 4_ &&+__ -__ &44_ +1_ +$_ _0'_ _3_ 4$_ _2_ _0_ &2_ _ -__ 22_ 40_ &$_ 2&_ _3_ +_ 4'_ 4_ 6_Table 2 Concentrations and standard deviations for elements measured by PIXE-PIGME.
F, Ti, Mn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Pb are measured in parts per million (ppm) and Na, Al, Si,
K, Ca, Fe are in percentages.
_ ______ __ ___ ___
__-__ _(._ (!''_ ___(!''/_(._ _(._ (!''_ ___(!''/_(._
&__ _56$_ _5$+_ $5642_ +5&$_ 15$+_ $5+62__ 452_ 45_1_ $506'_ $56_ $54_ $56'2*_ 4&$_ 2$+_ $5124_ _&60_ _$01_ $5+6'!_ &56+_ 25$6_ _5_4$_ &5&2_ &542_ _5$+1_ _ &41_ &26_ $50'6_ _2_ __ $5+4'__ 2_ &+_ $50$0_ 2_2_ 2+_ _5&_'+_ _4$_ +'_ $56$0_ _20_ _2_ $504$+_ &44_ &'&_ _5$2_ +1_ 04_ _5$1+-__ _ _ $5+12_ _ _ $5042Table 3 Comparison of the trace elements results from INAA (Kuzmin et al. 2002) and
PIXE-PIGME analysis
As shown in Table 3, the mean values for eight elements shared in both the
PIXE and INNA analyses (Kuzmin et al. 2002) show that the measurements for
glass from the Paekutsan Volcano and the Basaltic plateau are highly comparable.
The results show a close correspondence between the two approaches for the
volcanic glass from Paektusan Volcano, particular for potassium (K), sodium (Na),
rubidium (Rb) and scandium (Sc). A comparison of the results from Basaltic plateau,
although not quite as closely related, shows that the measures of sodium
(Na), scandium (Sc), manganese (Mn) and rubidium (Rb) are similar. Furthermore,
these results show a high degree of discrimination in the varying amounts
of trace elements in the two sources.
Obsidian artifacts are commonly found in archaeological contexts throughout
the Primorye Region (Korotky et al. 2003, 41). To measure changes in obsidian
use and distribution within the Primorye Region, 76 artifacts from 15 archaeological
contexts were characterized using PIXE-PIGME and compared to the geological
samples (Table 4). These artifacts were selected from excavated sites in three
___ _______
01_-_2___ ___
01_-_2________01_-_2_______ _ _ _ _ /___"_2_ ____ ___ 4'$_ $_ &$$_#____( ___"____&_ ____ ___ 4'$_ $_ &$$_#____(-___7___ ____ ___ 4'$_ $_ &$$_#____(*_____"_ ____ ___ 4'$_ $_ &$$_#____(!____ ____ ___ 4'$_ $_ &$$_#____(8____ ____ ___ 4'$_ $_ &$$_#____(8_9__"_ ____ ___ 2'$_ $_ _$$_#____(__!____ _ _ _ _ .________"_ )____ ___ ''$_ 1$_ 2$$_#____(,___"__ _____ ___ &6$_ 1$_ $,___"_1_ _____ ___ &6$_ 1$_ $,___:___ )____ ___ '2$_ 6$_ &6$_#____(__3_'__ _ _ _ :____4_ ____ ___ 4'$_ $_ &$$__"_ )____ ___ 41$_ 4$_ &_$___"__ )____ ___ 62$_ _2$_ 21$,__2_ )____ ___ '2$_ 6$_ &6$geographic regions (Southern, Central and Eastern Primorye) and are dated to
three archaeological periods (Late Paleolithic, Late Neolithic and Bronze Age).
The location of the sites studied is given in Figure 4.
The approximate distances from the source areas that volcanic glass was potentially
being transported during each of these periods in presented in Table 4.
This comparison is limited by the lack of sites in some of the regions for various
time periods. However, the data given in Table 4 does show that volcanic glass,
and especially obsidian from the Paekutsan Volcano, had been moved, often over
considerable distances. Furthermore, the simple comparison of the frequency of
artifacts from remote and local sources in the different archaeological periods presented
in Figure 5 shows a significant increase in the proportion of material from
the remote Paekutsan Volcano during the Late Neolithic.
Table 4 Approximate distances from source localities to archaeological site locations
Analyses by PIXE-PIGME of volcanic glass artifacts from fifteen archaeological
locations indicate the changing use and transportation of the volcanic glasses
through the prehistoric period in Primorye.
Late Paleolithic (c. 20 000—10 000 BP). A total of 28 artifacts from Late
Paleolithic sites were analysed from 7 sites located in the Basaltic plateau of Central
Primorye (Table 5). Most of the artifacts came from local Basaltic plateau
_______ _ ___ ___ ____ _____ _ _ /___"_2_ 2_ _ 2 ___"____&_ _ _ _
-___7___ 4_ &_ 6*_____"_ _ _ &!____ &_ 2_ '8____ _$_ _ _$8_9__"_ _ _ _
'__4 ____ _ _ -_____ &_ _ &-____ _ _ _
;_"_ __ _ _3__ _ _ _
___ _ _ &____"_ _ _ &!_____9_"_ _ _ _
!________ _ _ _
___ '_ &_ 1Table 5 Comparison of the sourced artifacts and artifact types
found in the Late Paleolithic
sources (n=21, 75%). However, the proportion of obsidian sourced to the remote
Paektusan Volcano shows that a significant number were imported from a considerable
distance (n=7, 25%). The artifact types indicate that both local and non-local
sources were used in blade manufacture, but a wider variety of tool types were
made from the local sources (Table 5).
Late Neolithic (c. 5 700—3 000 BP). The Late Neolithic Period is represented
by 24 artifacts from only 3 sites which are all located on the coast (Table 6; Fig__!____ _ ___ ___ ____ __.________"_ 2_ _ 2,___"__ _ _'_ _',___"_1_ _ _ _
,___:___ '_ _ ''__4 ____ _ _ -_____ &_ _ &;_"_ &_ _$_ _&)_____ 2_ _ 2:_____ _ _ _
____"_ _ '_ '!________ _ _ _
Table 6 Comparison of the sourced artifacts and artifact types
found in the Late Neolithic
ure 1) At Zaisanoka 1 and 7 in Southern Primorye, only obsidian from the Paektusan
Volcano was represented in our sample, whereas only glass from the Basaltic
plateau was transported to Eastern Primorye (Valentin-peresheek, Zara 1-A and 1-C).
Within the sample as a whole, the frequency of volcanic glass from the remote
Paektusan Volcano is much higher (n=16, 66.6%) than the local basaltic
glass (n=8, 33.3%). Obsidian from Paektusan Volcano was found within the Late
Neolithic contexts at Ustinovka 3 indicating that it was moved a distance of
_670 km from the source locality (Kuzmin et al. 2002, 513; Fig. 2).
Most of the blades or blade-like flakes in our samples are sourced to the Paektusan
Volcano. In contrast, a variety of flakes types were made from the local
material. These differences in the use of the local and remote may be an indication
of the development of specialization and exchange networks. The increase in
the proportion of obsidian from Paektusan Volcano during the Late Neolithic was
also identified by Kuzmin et al. (1999, 98) who proposed that it was related to
the development of the Zaisanovka Culture. This cultural complex is defined by
the present of a zig-zag ceramic motif which is thought to have originated in North
Korea and spread along the coast of Primorye (Cassidy et al. in press).
Bronze Age (3 500 BP). With the exception of Anuchino 14 (Cassidy and Kononenko
2001; Figure 1), the Bronze Age sites in our sample are predominately coastal.
The PIXE-PIGME results for 20 artifacts indicate that a wider diversity of sources
were used in the Bronze Age than in previous periods (Table 7). Volcanic glass from
__3_'____ ______
__5__6_ __:____4_ '_ _ _ _ '__"_ 2_ _ _ _ 2___"__ 2_ _ _ _ 6,__2_ _ 4_ _ _ 6'__4 ____ _ _ _ _ !_____"_9_ _ _ _ _ _
!_____9_"_ 2_ _ _ _ 4!________ _ _ _ _ _
!__________ _ _ _ _ 2;_"_ 4_ 2_ _ _ +___ _ _ _ _ &_9__ _ _ _ _ _
Table 7 Comparison of the sourced artifacts and artifact types found in the Bronze Age
the Gladkaya River basin was identified in an archaeological context for the first time.
At Zara 3 three sources of obsidian were identified with most originating from the
Paektusan Volcano. Similarly, at Sinie Skaly four sources, including an unknown source,
were used. Obsidian from the Southern Primorye region was transported _370 km to
Sinie Skaly, while material from the Paektusan Volcano was transported _640 km.
There is a major difference with the previous Late Neolithic period because the frequency
of local sources is higher in the assemblages (n=15, 75%) then the volcanic
glass artifacts from the remote Paektusan Volcano (n=5, 25%). Most of the retouched
artefacts are derived from Basaltic plateau glass, whereas the retouched arrowheads
come from three different sources (Table 7).
A preliminary study using Fission Track Dating of volcanic glasses was also
made since it is important to know when the glasses were formed. For example,
in dealing with young glasses, it is possible to monitor how differences in the
way these were exploited for use or trade are related to the age of the formation
of the deposits themselves. In addition, some archaeologists have found that fission
track dates on artifacts can be used to discriminate among geological sources
of different ages (Bonetti et al. 1998).
The results of Fission Track Dating on basaltic glasses derived from the
Basaltic Plateau region of Primorye is presented in Table 8. The method which
_-__ __ _ ______ _
(__ ___ _____ '__0*22_$_ ___!__ &_4<_+_ _461<61_ 05+<_5$2__ ___!__ _02<&1_ __1&<_+_ _5&<&5& _'$_=&_ _____ _&4<_2_ &_$$$<&_2_ 2501<$56' _'_'_ *__"_!__ _2$<_0_ _6_0<&_2_ '514<_5&6Table 8 Results for fission track dating of basaltic glasses of Primorye Province. Results for fission track
dating of basaltic glasses of Primorye Province. The induced track densities are normalized to a standard
neutron fluence of 10**15 n/cm2
is described in more detail in Fleischer and Price (1975), Durrani and Bull
(1987), and Bonnetti et al. (1998), is based on studying and counting latent
and induced fission tracks which are created on the sample by etching with a
strong acid and bombarding with a known thermal neutron fluence provided,
in our case, by the TRIGA Mark II Reactor of the LENA laboratory at the University
of Pavia, Italy.
Dating the basaltic glasses in Primorye turned out to be a difficult procedure
because the method requires a transparent sample in order to detect the fission
tracks, but this material is very opaque. Moreover, it turned out that such material
was very Uranium poor, i.e. 2—3 orders of magnitude less than typical rhyolitic
obsidians. The results presented in Table 1 show two groups of ages which
correlate with two different regions. The fission track data indicate that volcanic
glasses from the Shufan Plateau belong to volcanic eruptions of Pliocene age,
whereas the volcanic glasses from Shkotovo Plateau, located within the Pravaya
Ilistaya River Basin, are associated with a Late Miocene stage of volcanic activity.
From an archaeological point of view, the age of the basaltic glasses is clearly
well beyond the age of human presence. Consequently, they would have represented
highly stable resources during the time when ancient humans occupied
the region.
Since different geological source localities of volcanic glass have a unique
trace element composition, individual artifacts can be linked directly to the source.
This makes volcanic glass an ideal raw material for examining changes in procurement
strategies and mobility patterns of prehistoric societies (Roth 2000,
305—306). Along these lines, our preliminary study of geological sources and
archaeological material from Primorye has revealed interesting chronological
changes in the use of distant and local sources and in the form of the artifacts
made from these sources.
The movement of material into the Primorye region from the distant Paektusan
Volcano, beginning during the Late Paleolithic and continuing onwards, has
been viewed as «unquestionable evidence for intensive long-distance exchange of
obsidian» (Kuzmin et al. 2002, 514). Although our study confirms that volcanic
glass was transported over extensive distances, the actual mechanism behind this
movement must remain open to discussion. Without a detailed assessment of the
source localities, a typological and technological analysis of the assemblages, or a
systematic study of spatial patterning and fall-off with distance, one cannot yet
distinguish between exchange and mobility as the mechanism for the movement
of obsidian, nor for concrete differences between the various periods.
The mechanism of exchange may be inferred from the composition of the archaeological
assemblage. For example, if exhausted or broken specialized tools
are sourced to only one location, than they are more likely to have been exchanged
than transported within a mobility pattern (Roth 2000, 306—307). In contrast, if
local and non-local sources were used in the same way, stone was probably obtained
through direct procurement. By examining our data in this light, we can
see that during the Late Paleolithic both sources were used in the same way. In
contrast, during the Late Neolithic blade production was generally from made from
obsidian derived from the Paektusan Volcano, suggesting that exchange may have
taken place. These results only hint at the potential variability that could occur in
the procurement and mobility strategies that developed in the Primorye Region.
To explore these patterns further, a larger sample of the glass artifacts needs to
be characterised in conjunction with a detailed technological and spatial analyses
of the assemblges.
Within the Late Neolithic the development of the Zaisanovka Culture has been
observed throughout North-East Asia Cassidy et al. in press). At this time there
was an intensification in the sphere of human interaction along the Sea of Japan,
including Korea. The influx of rhyolitic glass from Paektusan Volcano into Southern
Primorye in this period may be the result of a greater degree of human interaction
over a wider area. In particular, the presence of blades and blade-like flakes
in the assemblages from Paektusan Volcano tentatively suggests that exchange
may have been the primary mechanism of movement from this source locality
into the Primorye region during the Late Neolithic.
During the subsequent Bronze Age, our data exhibit a wider diversity of sources
being exploited and being moved along the coast. It has been proposed that at
this time complex agricultural societies from the Northeast of China were moving
into the Primorye Region along the coast. However, an alternative explanation is
that there was an in situ sudden shift from a saltwater marine based economy to
a dependence of freshwater resources which was driven by climatic conditions
(Cassidy and Kononenko 2001, 142).
It has been suggested that the reason obsidian from Paektusan Volcano moved
into the Basaltic plateau, an area where plentiful in volcanic glass sources are
readily available, was because the local sources did not provide enough good quality
material (Kuzmin et al. (2002, 513). Preliminary fieldwork conducted in 2001 by
some of the authors of this paper suggests that this hypothesis is no longer tenable.
The team found abundant quantities of useable volcanic glass river cobbles in
a number of places (cf. Table 1), but a more thorough geoarchaeological survey
of the source localities should be undertaken to determine in more detail how their
physical characteristics may have influenced the way they were used in the past.
This type of assessment has been undertaken successfully in the Mediterranean,
Papua New Guinea, Australia and Northwestern Mexico (e. g. Tykot 2001; Torrence
1986; Torrence et al. 1992; Doelman et al. 2001; Shackley 1998).
In conclusion, our preliminary study confirms the importance of geochemical
methods, and in particular the PIXE-PIGME technique, to characterise geological
sources and archaeological artifacts in the Primorye region of Far East Russia.
The analyses reported here also highlight some potentially important changes in
the use and transport of several types of volcanic glass. The research has also
identified a number of avenues for further investigation. The potential mechanisms
which created the long distance movement of volcanic glass (e.g. exchange verses
mobility) need to be examined more rigorously. In future work a detailed geoarchaeological
survey of the source regions combined with typological, technological,
and spatial analyses of the assemblages are essential. These approaches, in
combination with further geochemical studies to enlarge the sample size of characterised
artifacts, should provide the necessary information for better understanding
the societies who procured, transported and worked volcanic glass in the Primorye
This research was supported by an Australian Research Council Discovery grant
to Torrence, Kononenko and Doelman, an Australian Museum Fellowship to Kononenko,
and AINSE grants to Torrence. At ANSTO we received much assistance
from Ivo Orlic, Ed Stelcer, Olga Hawas, and Rainer Siegele. Geological samples
for this study were collected during October 2001 by an international team of
archaeologists and geologists including I.Y. Sleptsov (Institute of History, Archaeology
and Ethnography of the People of the Far East, Russian Academy of Science),
Dr. Y. Yoshitani, (Tottori University), T. Tomodo, (Hokkaido) and J. Cassidy,
(University of California at Santa Barbara). PIXE-PIGME analysis was assisted
by Peter White and Pip Rath. Finally, many thanks to Peter White for comments
on the manuscript.
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РЕЗЮМЕ. Данная статья группы авторов посвящена предварительной геологической и археологической оценке нескольких источников вулканического стекла (обсидиана) в Приморье и их использованию в течение трех исторических периодов.
Рассматриваются четыре источника вулканического стекла, включающие в себя: а) базальтовое стекло Шкотовского и Шуфанского плато,
составляющие базальтовое плато Центрального Приморья; б) перлитовое и риолитовое стекло из двух источников Южного Приморья — полуострова Краббе и бассейна р. Гладкой; в) риолитовое стекло с вулкана
Пектусан, располагающегося на границе Китая и Северной Кореи. Предварительная геологическая и археологическая оценка этих источников
учитывала такие факторы, как геологическое происхождение и характер
залегания вулканического стекла, степень доступности для добычи и размеры сырьевого материала, его качественные характеристики, обусловливающие способность к раскалыванию (табл. 1).
Геохимический анализ 39 образцов, отобранных непосредственно
в выходах на поверхность источников сырья (первичные источники)
и в речных отложениях (вторичные источники, представляющие собой речной галечник), был выполнен с использованием PIXE-PIGME
(Proton Induced X-Ray Emission / Proton Induced Gamma Ray Emission)
техники. Преимущество этого метода заключается в том, что он позволяет идентифицировать пропорцию геохимических элементов в геологическом образце, или артефакте, не подвергая последние какому-либо разрушению. Результаты анализа показали геохимическое
различие трех источников, подтверждая данные предшествующих
анализов, выполненных с использованием других техник и методов
(EDXRF, INAA) (табл. 3).
PIXE-PIGME техника была также использована для изучения 76 артефактов с 15 археологических памятников, располагающихся в Южном,
Восточном и Центральном Приморье и хронологически охватывающих
периоды позднего палеолита, позднего неолита и эпохи бронзы.
Для изготовления 28 артефактов с позднепалеолитических
(12 000 л.н.) стоянок, располагающихся в районе Базальтового плато, в основном использовалось местное базальтовое стекло (75%).
В то же время 25% артефактов было сделано из обсидиана с вулкана Пектусан, отдаленного от района стоянок на 450 км (табл. 5).
Поздненеолитические артефакты (16 образцов) со стоянок Южного
Приморья (5 700—3 000 л.н.) были изготовлены из обсидиана вулкана
Пектусан (расстояние 260 км). Например, поздненеолитические артефакты Центрального и Восточного Приморья (8 образцов) были сделаны из
местного базальтового стекла). Более того, морфологически артефакты из обсидиана Пектусана представлены в основном пластинами и пластинчатыми отщепами, в отличие от отщепов из местного сырья.
Артефакты эпохи бронзы (3 500 л.н.) в основном соотносятся со стоянками, располагающимися в Восточном Приморье (15 образцов). Среди проанализированных образцов 7 связаны с местными источниками
Базальтового плато, 5 принесены с Пектусана, один образец происходит из источников р. Гладкой. Для двух образцов источники пока не идентифицированы.
Эти предварительные результаты показывают, что вулканическое
стекло в древности распространялось и переносилось на значительные расстояния. Пока не совсем ясно, являлось ли данное перемещение сырья для каменных орудий результатом обмена между первобытными коллективами или оно было связано с мобильным образом
жизни охотников и собирателей, переносивших с собой набор заготовок и орудий в новые места обитания? Мы предполагаем, что оба
способа могли быть применены в разные хронологические периоды.
Например, использование обсидиана с вулкана Пектусан для производства пластин в эпоху позднего неолита дает основание полагать,
что этот материал попадал в Приморье посредством обмена. Для более глубокого понимания роли обмена и мобильного образа жизни
в различные культурно-хронологические периоды древней истории
Приморья необходимо дальнейшее, более детальное химическое изучение вулканического стекла из источников и артефактов со стоянок
совместно с технологическим, типологическим и пространственным
анализом всех данных.

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